Eid al Fitr:  "Feast of breaking the fast" - August
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Eid al-Fitr , "festival of breaking of the fast"), also called Feast of Breaking the Fast, the Sugar Feast, Bayram (Bajram), the Sweet Festival and the Lesser Eid, is an important religious holiday celebrated by Muslims worldwide that marks the end of Ramadan, the Islamic holy month of fasting (sawm). 
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Bangladesh

Eid al-Fitr is observed over a three-day public holiday in Bangladesh. Educational institutions usually remain closed for a week during this time. Bangladeshis observe the holiday by performing the obligatory Eid prayers on the morning of Eid, giving zakat and fitra, and visiting friends and relatives. Popular customs also include decorating one's hands with henna, dressing up in new clothes and having a good meal with family and friends.

South-East Asia

Idul Fitri or Hari Raya Aidilfitri is the biggest holiday in Indonesia, Malaysia and Brunei; and one of the biggest in Singapore. Because sharing almost identical Southeast Asian Islamic culture, the customs and rituals of Eid al-Fitr are quite similar in Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei and Singapore.

Turkey

In Turkey, nation-wide celebrated holidays are referred to as bayram, and Eid al-Fitr is referred to as both Şeker Bayramı ("Bayram of Sweets") and Ramazan Bayramı ("Ramadan Bayram").

United States

Most Muslims in the United States offer the Eid prayer in big-city Islamic centers, convention halls or open parks. Muslims from different cultures with multi-national customs get together for prayers and celebrations. In some cities, prayers are done at multiple times to accommodate the large number of attendees. Generally, Muslims visit each other's homes on Eid or hold large feasts in mosques or community halls. Sometimes, Mosques rent parks for Muslims to pray in.

During the 3 days of Eid, many Muslims join big parties sponsored either by a community mosque or Islamic center or by a wealthy Muslim in the community. Children receive gifts, and all participants enjoy sweet, spicy and other flavorful delicacies. Many Muslims also donate money to those less fortunate. Sometimes, Muslims reserve amusement parks, skating rinks or other activity centers for an entire day of fun.

In New York City alternate side parking (street cleaning) regulations are suspended. In Houston, Texas, the annual prayers are offered at the George R. Brown Convention Center in Downtown Houston, organized by the Islamic Society of Greater Houston (ISGH).
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Eid al-Fitr (Arabic: عيد الفطر‎ ʻĪd al-Fiṭr, IPA: [ʕiːd al fitˤr], 

"festival of breaking of the fast"), also called Feast of Breaking the Fast, the Sugar Feast, Bayram (Bajram), the Sweet Festival and the Lesser Eid, is an important religious holiday celebrated by Muslims worldwide that marks the end of Ramadan, the Islamic holy month of fasting (sawm). The holiday celebrates the conclusion of the 29 or 30 days of dawn-to-sunset fasting during the entire month of Ramadan. The day of Eid, therefore, falls on the first day of the month of Shawwal. This is a day when Muslims around the world try to show a common goal of unity. The date for the start of any lunar Hijri month varies based on the observation of new moon by local religious authorities, so the exact day of celebration varies by locality. However in most countries, it is generally celebrated on the same day as Saudi Arabia.

Eid al-Fitr has a particular Salat (Islamic prayer) consisting of two Rakats (units) and generally offered in an open field or large hall. It may only be performed in congregation (Jama’at) and has an additional extra six Takbirs (raising of the hands to the ears while saying "Allāhu Akbar", literally "God is greater"), three of them in the beginning of the first raka'ah and three of them just before Ruku' in the second raka'ah in the Hanafi school. This Eid al-Fitr salat is, depending on which juristic opinion is followed, Fard (obligatory), Mustahabb (strongly recommended, just short of obligatory) or mandoob (preferable).

Muslims believe that they are commanded by God, as mentioned in the Quran, to continue their fast until the last day of Ramadan and pay the Zakat and fitra before offering the Eid prayers.​
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Also called: The Sugar Feast, the Sweet Festival,the Lesser Eid
Observed by: Muslim world
Type:  Islamic
Significance:  Marks the end of Ramadan fasting
Date:  1 Shawwal
Celebrations:  family and friends visits, traditional sweet dishes, using perfume, wearing new clothes, giving gifts, musical performances, etc.
Observances: Zakat al-Fitr charity, Eid prayers
Related to:  Rammdan, Eid al-Adhaz
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Eid al-Fitr goes by various names around the world, including:

  •    Acehnese - Uroë Raya Puasa ("Feast of Fasting")
  •   Albanian - Fitër Bajrami, Bajrami i madh ("Greater Feast")
  •   Azerbaijan - Ramazan Bayramı, Orucluq Bayramı
  •   Bengali - রোজার ঈদ / Rojar Id
  •   Bosnian - Ramazanski bajram ("Ramadan Feast"), Mali Bajram ("Lesser Feast")
  •   Bulgarian - Рамазан Байрам / Ramazan Bayram
  •   Chinese - 开斋的盛宴 / Kāizhāi de Shèngyàn
  •   Croatian - Ramazanski bajram ("Ramadan Feast")
  •   Dutch - Suikerfeest ("Sugar Feast")
  •   Farsi - عید فطر / Id-e Fitr ("Eid of Fitr")
  •   Filipino - Wakas ng Ramadan, Hari Raya Buka Puasa, Pagtatapos ng Pag-aayuno
  •   German - Fest des Fastenbrechens ("Feast of Breaking the Fast")
  •   Hausa - Sallah
  •   Hebrew - עיד אל-פיטר
  •   Hindi - ईद उल-फ़ित्र
  •   Indonesian - Idul Fitri, Hari Lebaran
  •   Javanese - Ngaidul Fitri
  •   Kazakh - Ораза айт / Oraza ait
  •   Kurdish - جێژنی ڕەمەزان / Cejna Remezanê
  •   Kyrgyz - Orozo Mayram
  •   Macedonian - Рамазан Бајрам
  •   Maghrebi Arabic - عيد الصغير / 'Id as-Saghir ("Lesser Eid")
  •   Malay - Hari Raya Aidilfitri ("Feast of Eid al-Fitr"), Hari Raya Puasa ("Feast of Fasting"), Hari Lebaran
  •   Malayalam - Cheriya Perunnal
  •   Mali - Korité
  •   Minangkabau - Hari Rayo
  •   Niger - Karamas'Sallah, Djingar Keyna ("Lesser Feast")
  •   Pashto - کمکی اختر / Kamkay Akhtar ("Lesser Feast"); وړوکی اختر / Warrukay Akhtar
  •   Portuguese - Celebração do fim do jejum
  •   Russian - Праздник Нарушения Поста
  •   Senegalese - Korité
  •   Serbian - Рамазански бајрам
  •   Sindhi - Id Nimaz
  •   Somali - Ciid Yare
  •   Spanish - Fiesta de la ruptura del ayuno
  •   Sundanese - Boboran Siyam
  •   Tamil - Nonbu Perunaal
  •   Tatar - Ураза байрам / Uraza bayram
  •   Turkish - Ramazan Bayramı ("Ramadan Feast"), Şeker Bayramı ("Sugar Feast")
  •   Turkmen - Oraza baýramy
  •   Urdu - چھوٹی عید / Choti Id; میٹھی عید / Meethi Id
  •   Uyghur - روزا ھېيت / Rozi Heyt
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History
Before the advent of Islam in Arabia, there is mention of festivals as well as some others among the Arabs. The Israelites had festivals as well, but as is evident from the Old Testament and other scriptures, these festivals related more to commemorating certain days of their history.

Eid al-Fitr was originated by the Islamic prophet Muhammad. It is observed on the first of the month of Shawwal at the end of the month of Ramadan, during which Muslims undergo a period of fasting.

According to certain traditions, these festivals were initiated in Madinah after the migration of Muhammad from Mecca. Anas reports:

  When the Prophet arrived in Madinah, he found people celebrating two specific days in which they used to entertain themselves with recreation and merriment. He asked them about the nature of these festivities at which they replied that these days were occasions of fun and recreation. At this, the Prophet remarked that the Almighty has fixed two days [of festivity] instead of these for you which are better than these: Eid al-Fitr and Eid al-Adha

For Muslims, both the festivals of Eid al-Fitr and Eid al-Adha are occasions of showing gratitude to God and remembering Him, and are an occasion of entertainment. ‘Aishah narrates that when on an Eid day her father Abu Bakr stopped young girls from singing, Muhammad said: Abu Bakr! [Let them sing]; every nation has an ‘id and [this day] is our Eid.
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General rituals
See also: Eid cuisine at wikipedia

​Eid al-Fitr is celebrated for one, two or three days. Common greetings during this holiday are the Arabic greeting ‘Eid Mubārak ("Blessed Eid") or ‘Eid Sa‘īd ("Happy Eid"). In addition, many countries have their own greetings in the local language – in Turkey, for example, a typical saying might be Bayramınız kutlu olsun or "May your Bayram – Eid – be blessed." Muslims are also encouraged on this day to forgive and forget any differences with others or animosities that may have occurred during the year.

Typically, practicing Muslims wake up early in the morning—always before sunrise— offer Salatul Fajr (the pre-sunrise prayer), and in keeping with the traditions of the Prophet Muhammad clean their teeth with a toothbrush, take a shower before prayers, put on new clothes (or the best available), and apply perfume.

It is forbidden to fast on the Day of Eid. It is customary to acknowledge this with a small sweet breakfast, preferably of the date fruit, before attending a special Eid prayer (known as salaat).

As an obligatory act of charity, money is paid to the poor and the needy (Arabic: Sadaqat-ul-fitr) before performing the ‘Eid prayer:

  •   To show happiness
  •   To give as much charity as is possible
  •   To pray Fajr in the local Masjid
  •   To go early for Eid salaat
  •   To read the takbirat in an open field.
  •   Go to the Eid prayer on foot
  •   Do not speak one word other than words that remember Allah or anything Islamic terms before and after Eid Salaat. You can speak once you've left the Masjid, or Mosque or any other place you were praying
  •   Say Eid Mubarak to other Muslims
  •   Muslims recite the following incantation in a low voice while going to the Eid prayer: Allāhu Akbar, Allāhu Akbar, Allāhu Akbar. Lā ilāha illà l-Lāh wal-Lāhu akbar, Allahu akbar walil-Lāhi l-ḥamd. Recitation ceases when they get to the place of Eid or once the Imam commences activities.
  •   Muslims are recommended to use separate routes to and from the prayer grounds.

The Eid prayer is performed in congregation in open areas like fields, community centers, etc. or at mosques. No call to prayer is given for this Eid prayer, and it consists of only two units of prayer with an additional six incantations. The Eid prayer is followed by the sermon and then a supplication asking for God's forgiveness, mercy, peace and blessings for all living beings across the world. The sermon also instructs Muslims as to the performance of rituals of Eid, such as the zakat. Listening to the sermon at Eid is not required and is optional, a Sunnah i.e. while the sermon is being delivered. After the prayers, Muslims visit their relatives, friends and acquaintances or hold large communal celebrations in homes, community centers or rented halls.

Eid gifts, known as Eidi, are frequently given at eid to children and immediate relatives.
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Islamic tradition
Eid al-Fitr marks the end of the fasting month of Ramadan. This has to do with the communal aspects of the fast, which expresses many of the basic values of the Muslim community; e.g., empathy for the poor, charity, worship, steadfastness, patience etc. Fasting is also believed by some scholars to extol fundamental distinctions, lauding the power of the spiritual realm, while acknowledging the subordination of the physical realm. It also teaches a Muslim to stay away from worldly desires and to focus entirely on the Lord and thank Him for his blessings. It is a rejuvenation of the religion and it creates a stronger bond between the Muslim and his Lord. After the end of Ramadan, is a big celebration of Eid.
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In the Gregorian calendar
Although the date of Eid al-Fitr is always the same in the Islamic calendar, the date in the Gregorian calendar falls approximately 11 days earlier each successive year, since the Islamic calendar is lunar and the Gregorian calendar is solar. Hence if the Eid falls in the first ten days of a Gregorian calendar year, there will be a second Eid in the last week of the same Gregorian calendar year. The Gregorian date may vary between countries depending on the local sightability of the new moon. Some expatriate Muslim communities follow the dates as determined for their home country, while others follow the local dates of their country of residence.
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References
  • Encyclopedia of Islam and the Muslim World. Edited by Martin, Richard C. Macmillan Reference, 2004. vol. 1

External links

Resources:  
  • Top Photo: Ketupat is a popular traditional celebrative dish for Eid al-Fitr meal in Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore and Southern Thailand. photo link
  • This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses some material from Wikipedia/article Eid al Fitr/and other related pages. 
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