"Bone marrow is the flexible tissue found in the hollow interior of bones. In adults, marrow in large bones produces new blood cells. It constitutes 4% of total body weight, i.e. approximately 2.6 kg (5.7 lbs.) in adults. There are two types of bone marrow: red marrow (consisting mainly of myeloid tissue) and yellow marrow (consisting mainly of fat cells). Red blood cells, platelets and most white blood cells arise in red marrow. Both types of bone marrow contain numerous blood vessels and capillaries."
Many cultures utilize bone marrow as a food.
"The Vietnamese prize bone as the soup base for their national staple phở; Alaskan Natives eat the bone marrow of caribou and moose; Indians use slow-cooked marrow as the core ingredient of the Indian dish Nalli Nihari; Mexicans use beef bone marrow from leg bones, called tuetano, which is cooked and served as filling for tacos or tostadas; it is also considered to be the highlight of the Italian dish ossobuco (braised veal shanks). Though once used in various preparations, including pemmican, bone marrow for human consumption in the United States has recently fallen out of favor as a food. In the Philippines, the soup "Bulalo" is made primarily of beef stock and marrow bones, seasoned with choice vegetables and boiled meat."
"Bone marrow is a source of protein and high in monounsaturated fats. These fats are known to decrease LDL cholesterol levels resulting in a decreased risk of cardiovascular disease, prompting some to make bone marrow a dietary staple. The actual health effects of the addition of bone marrow to the diet remain unclear."
"Diners in the 18th century used a marrow scoop (or marrow spoon), often of silver and with a long thin bowl, as a table implement for removing marrow from a bone."
"Some anthropologists believe that early humans were scavengers rather than hunters. Marrow would then have been a major protein source for tool-using hominids, who were able to crack open the bones of carcasses left by top predators such as lions."
"The broth is generally made by simmering beef (and sometimes chicken) bones, oxtails, flank steak, charred onion, and spices, taking several hours to prepare. Seasonings include Saigon cinnamon, star anise, charred ginger, and cloves."
Ossobuco alla milanese (in English, often spelled 'osso buco', or
as 'osso bucco' with two c's, noted by Merriam-Webster as an
alternate spelling) is a dish from Milan, Italy, capital of Lombardy,
of braised veal shanks. It is usually sprinkled with gremolata, a mix
of parsley, garlic and lemon peel, and served with risotto alla
milanese, a risotto enhanced with saffron threads."
"The shank is cut across the bone into slices about one cm thick, browned, and braised in white wine and herbs."
"Ossobuco was formerly made without tomatoes (these being unknown in Milan until the late 19th century). That tomato-less version, in bianco is prepared with cinnamon, allspice, bay leaf and gremolata has by and large been replaced with the newer version which includes tomatoes, carrots, celery and onion, flavoured with a bouquet garni and without gremolata (although 'hybrid' versions exist which include both tomato and gremolata)."
"In the modern Italian version of this dish, ossobuco is often served with risotto alla milanese, one of the few cases where a grain and meat dish are served together. Other risotto rice side dishes may be used as well."
The shank is called osso buco in Italian (from Western Lombard oss bus classical orthography, òs büüs alternative orthography), lit. 'hole bone' (osso 'bone', buco 'hole'), because the bone marrow is part of the appeal of the dish.
Gamjatang or pork bone soup "is a spicy Korean soup made with pork spine, vegetables, green onions, hot peppers and ground wild sesame seeds. It is a matter of contention whether the name of the soup comes from the word for potato (감자; gamja) or not, because the soup is frequently served without potatoes. The vertebrae are usually separated with bits of meat clinging to them. The vertebrae is boiled in high temperatures to soften the meat."
"The backbones of swine have abundant nutrition of protein, calcium, vitamine B1 which can help the growth of young children. For male, it's advangageous for stamina food and for female, gamjatang can be low calorie food."
Bones Stock - "Veal, beef, and chicken bones are most commonly used. The flavour of the stock comes from the cartilage and connective tissue in the bones. Connective tissue has collagen in it, which gets converted into gelatin that thickens the liquid. Stock made from bones needs to be simmered for longer than stock made from meat (often referred to as broth). Pressure cooking methods shorten the time necessary to extract the flavour from the bones. "
Herbs and spices - "The herbs and spices used depend on availability and local traditions. In classical cuisine, the use of a bouquet garni (or bundle of herbs) consisting of parsley, bay leaves, a sprig of thyme, and possibly other herbs, is common. This is often placed in a sachet to make it easier to remove once the stock is cooked."