Breakfast is the first meal of the day: The word came about because it means breaking the fast after one has not eaten (fasted) since the night before.
Etymological information: English: 1463, from break (v.) + fast (n.). Cf. Fr. déjeuner "to breakfast," derived from L. jejunare "to fast." The verb dates from 1679. The English word derives from the concept that sleep prevents eating, thus an involuntary fast occurs during sleep; this fast is broken by the first meal of the day referred to as breakfast.
Contemporary: Today, most Americans and Canadians eat a reduced breakfast most days, but may still enjoy a traditional hearty breakfast on weekends, holidays, and vacations. Having only coffee or skipping breakfast entirely is also common. Eating out for breakfast or brunch is common on weekends and holidays.
Nigeria: With Nigeria being the most populous state in Africa hosting over 250 different ethnic groups, consistency of eating habits is not possible. In Southwest Nigeria one of the most common breakfasts is ògì. Ògì - a porridge made from corn usually served with evaporated milk.
Ghana: In Ghana, the typical breakfast across the country includes goat omelets, a very sweet and dense bread, and tea. Porridge is occasionally eaten at home, while many people purchase their breakfasts from street vendors.
Uganda: Different parts of Uganda serve varying breakfasts. A usual breakfast is a cup of tea with a variety of either warm or cold foods. In central Uganda, a typical breakfast would be a tea (made with milk and ginger) served with a warm meal known locally as katogo. This is a combination of green cooking bananas (matooke) mixed either in a stew from beef or in sauce from vegetables like beans. In some parts of Northern Uganda, breakfast would consist of tea and boiled cassava.
Senegal: In Senegal, breakfast typically includes freeze dried coffee, typically Nescafe, with dried milk and abundant sugar, accompanied by baguette pieces with any number of spreads: Chocoleca, a Nutella equivalent made from peanuts; butter; or Laughing Cow processed cheese. Fresh fruit, including mangoes and bananas, are often also part of a simple breakfast.
Mainland China, Taiwan, and Hong Kong: A typical rice porridge complete with dried minced pork; popular breakfast fare in China.
Chinese breakfasts vary greatly between different regions. With the exception of Hong Kong and Taiwan, Western types of breakfasts or their derivatives are rarely had. In Northern China breakfast fare typically includes huājuǎn, mántou (steamed breads), shāobǐng (unleavened pocket-bread with sesame), bāozi (steamed buns with meat or vegetable stuffing), with Dòunǎi or dòujiāng (soy milk) or tea served in Chinese style as beverages.
In Central and Eastern China, typified by Shanghai and the neighbouring Jiangsu, Zhejiang, and Anhui provinces breakfast fares include some Northern as well as Southern dishes. Typically breakfast consists of ci fan tuan, 油豆腐粉絲 → yóudoùfu fěnsī (a soup made by fried tofu and cellophane noodles), plain rice porridge (粥 → zhōu) served with numerous side dishes such as salted duck eggs, pickled vegetables, and century eggs, or sweetened or savoury soy milk served with shāobǐng or 油條 → yóutiáo.
In Southeastern China, such as Fujian province, breakfasts consist of rice porridge served with side dishes like pickled vegetables and century eggs.
In Southern China, represented by Guangdong province breakfasts include rice porridge prepared to a thicker consistency than those sold in Shanghai and side dishes are not served. Congee is served with yóutiáo if it is plain. In many cases, however, congee is prepared with meats or dried vegetables such as beef slices, shredded salted pork and century eggs, fish, or slices of pig's liver and kidney and can be served with or without yóutiáo. Other breakfast fares include rice noodle rolls (cheong fun) (served with Hoi sin sauce and soy sauce, without fillings), fried noodles (pan fried noodles with bean sprouts, spring onions, and soy sauce), fagao (rice cakes), jiānbǐng (thin crispy omelets with fillings folded in), lúobogāo (turnip cakes) and zòngzi (another kind of rice cake wrapped in bamboo leaves). The dim sum breakfast is a world in itself, and is often eaten as brunch at specialist restaurants.
In Taiwan, breakfasts tend to be a mix of Northern and Eastern Chinese dishes in addition to the traditional south-eastern Chinese fare.A typical Hong Kong cha chaan teng breakfast, including a cup of silk-sock milk tea.
In a Hong Kong cha chaan teng breakfasts could consist of milk tea, coffee, or yuanyang served with bread, ham, and fried eggs, and a bowl of macaroni soup with ham. This local interpretation of English breakfast is regarded in both mainland China and Taiwan as uniquely Hong Kong.
The South Indian staple breakfast item of idly, sambar, and vada served on a banana leaf.
In Indian Bengal and Bangladesh the breakfast items may include luchi/ Kochuri(stuffed luchis), puffed rice crisps with milk, jaggery and fruits. The luchi/kochuri are served with a vegetable curry or something shallow fried. Semi-fermented rice having a mild pungent flavour (panta bhaath) is also eaten sometimes with dal and chillies.
In South India, the most popular breakfast is an assortment with several possible main dishes, such as idlis, vadas, dosas, salty pongal, and chapatis. These are most often served with hot sambar and at least one kind of chutney are the common items in Tamilnadu.
The usual North Indian breakfast consists of stuffed paratha breads or unstuffed parathas (they resemble oily milee crepes) with fresh butter, cooked spicy vegetables -- especially aloo sabzi. Puri and chholey is also a popular north-Indian breakfast, along with rajma-chawal. Popular accompaniments include sweets like jalebi, halwa, and sweetened milk. Samosas, and combination of jalebi with yogurt (dahi-jalebi) comprise stand-alone breakfast items in U.P. and its surrounding parts. In Maharashtra, Poha, Upma, or Shira (similar to Kesaribath) is frequently eaten for breakfast.
Gujarati breakfast items include haandvo, dhokla, sev-khamni, theplas (a form of paratha), bhaakhri and assorted hard and crispy masala puris with pickles. Tea is a staple item in breakfast. Children are encouraged to drink milk instead of tea.
In urban areas, omelettes and simple butter sandwiches are becoming a popular breakfast food.
A traditional Japanese breakfast is based on rice, seafood, and fermented foods, which do not differ substantially from dishes eaten at other meals in Japanese cuisine. An exception is nattō (a type of fermented soybeans), which is most popularly eaten for breakfast. A typical Japanese restaurant breakfast presentation would be miso soup, rice with nori or other garnishes, nattō, grilled fish, raw egg, and a pickled vegetable. The influence of Japanese travelers has made this traditional breakfast a standard option on the menus of many upscale hotels worldwide. It is common in Japanese households to include left-over items from the last evening's dinner in the next day's breakfast. Western breakfast foods such as toast and boiled or fried eggs are also common, and cereals are becoming popular. Typical breakfast beverages are green tea (traditional) and coffee (modern).
In Korea, breakfast contains rice, soup, several kinds of Namul or seasoned vegetables, Kimchi (fermented, pickled vegetables), and grilled meat or fish. Traditionally, food eaten in the morning does not differ substantially from the other meals of the day (see Korean cuisine) though the number of dishes is fewer. Today, however, people are more likely to eat Western-style breakfasts similar to those in the United States.
In Malaysia, breakfast sometimes consists of a popular Malay food called nasi lemak. Other food such as roti prata (known as roti canai in Malaysia), kaya toast, half boiled eggs and wonton noodles are also among the favorites. In the Malaysian's East Coast, glutinous rice is eaten as breakfast. Malaysian Chinese from the town of Klang, which is famous for its Bak Kut Teh, frequently eat it for breakfast. In other parts of Malaysia and Singapore however, it is more commonly eaten at other meals.
A typical Singaporean breakfast usually consists of a variety of food options from various cultures. Most common are fried noodle with egg (or other side dishes like vegetables, ham, fish cake or tofu), mee goreng (Malay version of fried noodle, albeit spicier), nasi lemak, curry puffs, kueh-kueh (malay cakes) or sandwiches for those on the move. For those who can afford a more leisurely breakfast, it can be noodle soup, kway chap (flat noodles in braised soup along with sides like tofu, peanut, pork and pig organs.), a variety of malay noodle soup dishes like mee soto, mee siam. There are other local favourite like bean curd, sweet soup like black glutinous rice porridge or green/ red bean soup. Others may prefer toast, cereals or an American breakfast from fast-food chains. It is common especially among older students and working adults to skip breakfast.
In Burma, the traditional breakfast in town and country alike is htamin gyaw, fried rice with boiled peas (pè byouk), and yei nway gyan ( green tea) especially among the poor.
Glutinous rice or kao hnyin is a popular alternative, steamed wrapped in banana leaf often with peas as kao hnyin baung served with a sprinkle of crushed and salted toasted sesame. Equally popular is the purple variety known as nga cheik cooked the same way and called nga cheik paung. Si damin is sticky rice cooked with turmeric and onions in peanut oil and served with crushed and salted toasted sesame and crispfried onions. Assorted fritters such as baya gyaw (urad dal) go with all of them. Nan bya or naan (Indian-style flatbreads) again with pè byouk or simply buttered is served with Indian tea or coffee. It also goes very well with hseiksoup (mutton soup). Fried chapati, blistered like nan bya but crispy, with pè byouk and crispy fried onions is a popular alternative. Htat ta ya, lit. "a hundred layers", is flaky multilayered fried paratha served with either pè byouk or a sprinkle of sugar. E kya kway (Chinese-style fried breadsticks or youtiao) with Indian tea or coffee is another favourite.
Mohinga, perhaps the most popular of all, now available as an "all-day breakfast" in many towns and cities, is rice vermicelli in fish broth kept on the boil with chickpea flour and/or crushed toasted rice, lemon grass, sliced banana stem, onions, garlic, ginger, pepper and fish paste and served with crispy fried onions, crushed dried chilli, coriander, fish sauce and lime. Add fritters such as split chickpea (pè gyan gyaw), urad dal (baya gyaw) or gourd (bu gyaw), boiled egg and fried fish cake (nga hpè gyaw).
Another dish, growing in popularity because of its healthier composite and economic friendliness, is the Rakhine Mont-de, a variant of Mohinga, but lighter. It consists of thin rice noodles eaten with clear soup, made from boiled ngapi and lemon grass. Toasted fish flakes, from snakefish and green and red chili paste are also added, with seasoning. Rakhine Mont-de is also called ar-pu-shar-pu (lit. hot throat, hot tongue) because of its heavy use of spicy ingredients. A salad version also exists. It is now available in many cities and towns across Burma.
The traditional breakfast in Pakistan is usually a heavy meal. There are several dishes-
* Halva Puri Cholay or Halva Puri for short which consists of two separate dishes, Halva, a sweet made from semolina, and Aloo Cholay, a spicy chick-pea and potato curry eaten with Puri, a small circular deep-fried flat bread. * Siri paya eaten with Naan Bread (siri paya is a stew made of cow, goat or lamb's skull and feet. Siri means the head of the animal and paya means the feet of the animal. It is considered a delicacy.) * Nihari. Nihari is a stew made from beef or lamb and curry. Nihari is also eaten with Naan bread.
* Lassi. It is a drink made from milk and yogurt, served in sweet, and rarely, in salty flavour. Otherwise parathas are widely eaten for breakfast; they may be stuffed with vegetables or unstuffed eaten alongside fried eggs or aloo (potatoes). Tea is sometimes served with breakfast. In cities and urban areas, eggs and toast with butter and jam are also popular.
Rice is a predominant staple in the Philippines. As such, a favourite traditional breakfast has fried rice called sinangag. Usually, this is made of leftover rice from the previous dinner (so nothing is wasted, as well as because this yields a firm and "tossed" texture, which is preferred over sticky), and fried with salt and garlic cloves. This is then combined with fried or scrambled eggs, and a choice of breakfast meat: beef tapa (similar to beef jerky), pork tocino (sweet cured pork), longganisa (fresh garlic sausage), dried, smoked fish (such as tuyo), canned sardines, sauteed corned beef, or crispy pork adobo, sometimes with Western-style baked beans, sliced tomatoes and a local pickle (achara) on the side. Alternatively, a cheese-topped breakfast pastry called an ensaymada (a colonial relative of the Mallorcan ensaimada) is also eaten, usually with hot chocolate, as is pan de sal (Philippine breakfast roll) filled with a buffalo milk white cheese, and local barako coffee.
Western style breakfasts such as pancakes, French toast, and porridge are also eaten at home, as are cold 'corn flake-type' cereals which are popular with children. There is also a breakfast known as "Tapsilog", which is a combination of Tapa (Breakfast Steak), Sinangag (Fried Rice) and Itlog (Egg) Finally, there is champorado, a local chocolate sticky rice porridge, often served with a side dish of crisp-fried sun-dried fish (danggit or tuyo) -- an unusual, though authentically Filipino combination.
In the early mornings, hawkers also sell rice porridge (lugaw/goto), and noodle soups (mami, lomi, batchoy, etc.) in stalls to those on their way to work. Bakeries also open early for those purchasing pan de sal to eat at home, as well as for people who eat breakfast "on the go." Taho is also a popular accompaniment to breakfast, especially with children, and these are bought from vendors who carry them (along with other breakfast rice cakes such as puto, pichi-pichi, cuchinta, palitaw, etc.) in two small cans/barrels suspended in opposite poles of a yoke placed over a shoulder (which culturally recalls an irrigation device used on rice paddies).
The Singhalese traditional breakfast includes usually fresh (hot) bread, roti, pittu (rice or manipittu), string hoppers, hoppers, milk rice, appam, or green gram. These are usually eaten with curry (meat or vegetable), sambol (coconut, maldive fish or seeni-onion fried with chili and sugar) or with jaggery and plantains. Noodles and cereals such as Cornflakes are relative newcomers. Also sri lankans Traditional drink is Kanda(Like soup) A typical everyday breakfast can simply consist of "brother bread" with butter, and cheese or jam, plantain banana and tea.
In Cambodia and Laos, it is customary to eat soup for breakfast, as well as congee.
In the case of Thailand, a variety of different foods are served for breakfast since the country has opened to the eating cultures from many countries. Thai-Chinese people typically have congee/jook, boil-rice with fishes, pickles, dried shredded pork; dim-sum is also popular in some provinces particularly in the South of Thailand. During rush hours in big cities, particularly Bangkok, people would have fast and simple Western style breakfast, for example, bread, cornflakes, omelet, coffee and milk. Street eateries in Bangkok offer a wide range of food, such as sandwiches, grilled or fried pork with sticky rice, noodles, rice and Thai curries. Since there are so many kinds of food for breakfast, Thai people usually say that they would eat whatever they want for their breakfast.
There are multiple breakfast menu options across Vietnam, and usually the household will buy this from vendors rather than make it. Breakfast can be quite hearty, depending on whether one chooses to top their meal with a meat roll or pastries. Typical noodle breakfast dishes in Vietnam (which are usually served with a loaf of bread to dip in the soup) include Pho (Vietnamese beef or chicken soup based rice noodle), hu tieu (egg/wheat noodles, either soup based or not, with various meat or seafood), Bún bò Huế (spicy Hue style beef soup based noodles), Bún riêu (crab soup based vermicelli noodles) or mi quang (prawn and pork rice noodles). Banh cuon ( crêpe-like roll made from thin, wide sheets of rice flour filled with ground pork, minced wood ear mushroom, and other ingredients, including meat loaves and sauce), banh bao (savoury meat buns or sweet bean buns), banh mi (Vietnamese cold cut meat loaf breads), banh mi hot ga op la (Vietnamese French Bread with Sunnyside-Up Eggs (which may be served with a hot meat ball soup)), xôi (or glutinous rice, either savoury or sweet), boiled eggs or congee (similar to the Southern Chinese), are common breakfast meals in Vietnam. Often, the Vietnamese will drink coffee, tea, juice, or soy milk to complete their breakfasts.
In New Zealand and Australia, the typical breakfast strongly resembles breakfast in other English-speaking countries. Owing to the warm weather in some parts of Australia, breakfast is generally light. The light breakfast consists of cereals, toast, fruit, and fruit juices rather than cooked items. However, Australians may also enjoy a heavy breakfast with fried bacon, egg, mushroom, sausage, tomatoes and toast, with tea or coffee and juice (similar to the Full English breakfast). Some other typical meals include pancakes, porridge, yogurt, and hash browns. Vegemite is routinely spread on toast for breakfast. Australians have also been known to enjoy onion rings as part of their cooked breakfast, often using them as a substitute for hash browns.
In summer, a New Zealand breakfast will typically consist of some variation on toast, cereal, juice and fruit. In winter many New Zealanders prefer porridge or Weet-Bix with hot milk. On special occasions some New Zealanders will create a full cooked breakfast after the English tradition — generally bacon and eggs, fried tomatoes, fried mushrooms, and toast. American-type breakfasts (pancakes etc.) are becoming more common in New Zealand. These are usually purchased from a restaurant for weekend brunch.
Hotels and other types of lodging in Europe typically include breakfast in their rates, and in many cases, especially in larger hotels, it is served as a buffet. Specific items will vary from country to country, depending on local breakfast tastes and habits. In Switzerland, for example, cold cuts (luncheon meats), cheese, yoghurt, prepared fruit, butter, croissants, breads, and rolls are served. Sometimes foods belonging to the British breakfast (eggs, sausages, tomatoes (fresh, grilled or canned), bacon) can occasionally be found as part of the buffet.
Traditionally, people in Britain and Ireland have enjoyed a substantial hot meal for breakfast, featuring eggs, bacon, and sausages, accompanied by toast and tea or coffee. These items are sometimes eaten separately on morning rolls. Many other items (for example kedgeree, grilled or fried tomatoes, black pudding or white pudding, baked beans, fried sliced bread, various types of fried potatoes and mushrooms) may be included depending on taste and location. Today, this dish remains popular but is not usually served at breakfast time during the week. Many people instead reserve the full cooked breakfast for weekends, or go to a cafe for it at the weekend. A Full Breakfast is also a meal available any time at many cafes and greasy spoons. It is also served at hotels where it can be quite substantial in size and variety. The author Somerset Maugham once quipped that "the only way to eat well in England is to have breakfast three times a day." This traditional cooked breakfast has largely been replaced by simple, light foods mainly eaten cold: fruit, yogurt, packaged cereal with cold milk, and toast with a variety of spreads such as butter, jam, marmalade, lemon curd, Marmite, or peanut butter. Boiled eggs with soldiers are also a popular breakfast meal in the UK although like the Full English Breakfast they are mainly eaten at the weekend. Porridge is a traditional breakfast in Scotland as well as the rest of Britain in the winter months. In most British hotels this breakfast is included in the room rate.
Another popular breakfast in England is the kipper, a type of salted, smoked herring that is then heated by grilling or frying.
However, times have progressed and due to the need for fast nourishment, cold breakfast foodstuffs such as commercial cereal brands (sugarpuffs, Cheerios, weetabix etc) are becoming the norm for many persons first meal of the day; the option of smoothies and yogurt has also became a popular choice in later years as well as French-influenced croissants as a sweet replacement to toast or crumpets.
A typical Belgian breakfast is like that of its northern neighbor, the Netherlands. Belgians do not eat their most famous food, Belgian waffles, which are traditionally sold in tourist areas of large cities, and are eaten as a snack. The breakfast in Belgium consists of breads, toasted or untoasted, with several marmalades, jams, and nut spreads, such as Nutella or just with a bar of chocolate. Other common toppings include sliced meats and cheeses. Pastries and croissants may be served on Sundays, but are mostly not eaten on weekdays. Belgians often enjoy coffee, tea, hot chocolate, water, or fresh juice with breakfast.
Netherlands: The Dutch typically eat sliced bread with three choices of toppings: dairy products (numerous variations of cheese), a variety of cured and sliced meats, or sweet or semi-sweet products such as jam, syrup (from sugar beets or fruit), honey, Bebogeen (a very sweet caramel topping made from sugar beets), Kokosbrood (a coconut product that is served thinly sliced like sliced cheese; also known as Cocosbread) or peanut butter. Another type of sweet toppings are the chocolate toppings; the Dutch have chocolate toppings in all variations: hagelslag (chocolate sprinkles), chocoladevlokken (chocolate flakes) (both typically Dutch), and chocolate spread. Tea, dripolator coffee, milk, and juice are the most popular breakfast beverages. Breakfast may also include raisin bread.
Denmark: A typical breakfast in Denmark, similar to its southern neighbor Germany, consists of bread rolls or toast with butter and Danish skæreost (sliced cheese), a buttery creamy white cheese (often Danish havarti or Danish tilsit), fruit jam, and a lot of coffee. A bigger and fancier spread might also include cold cuts of meat (cold, thin-sliced ham, rullepølse, or salami), soft-boiled eggs, muesli and sweet rolls of all types. Special occasions are often celebrated with a shot of Gammel Dansk. Also in Denmark, pålægschokolade (put-on chocolate) which is thin slices of chocolate put on bread with butter underneath.
Sweden: Breakfast in Sweden is generally a sandwich made of a large amount of different types of soft bread or crisp bread, cold cuts, caviar, cheese, cottage cheese, cream cheese, goat cheese, eggs, scrambled or boiled, tomatoes or cucumber, or a toast with marmalade or maybe honey, juices, coffee, hot chocolate or tea. Breakfast cereals or muesli with milk, yoghurt or filmjölk, currants and fruits are popular or warm whole-grain porridge with milk and jam, (for example lingonberry jam). Pickled herring or shrimp, pâté (leverpastej) with pickled cucumber, blueberry-soup (blåbärssoppa) and rose hip soup is also possible sometimes for breakfast.
Finland: Breakfast usually consists of open sandwiches. The sandwich is often buttered (with margarine), with toppings such as hard cheese or cold cuts. Finns usually do not have sweets on their breads such as jam (like the French and the Americans), or chocolate (like the Danes). Sour milk products such as yogurt or viili are also common breakfast foods, usually served in a bowl with cereals such as corn flakes, muesli, and sometimes with sugar, fruit or jam. A third food that is commonly eaten at breakfast is porridge (puuro), often made of rolled oats, and eaten with a pat of butter (voisilmä, lit. "butter eye") and/or with milk, or fruit or jam, especially the sort made of raspberries or strawberries (sometimes lingonberries). Drinks are milk, juice, tea, or coffee.
Scandinavia: Breakfasts in other parts of Scandinavia can be quite ample. Fish, cheese, eggs, bacon, hot and cold cereals, breads, potatoes, and fruits are all eaten in various combinations, along with juices, coffee, and tea. or kulturmelk (Norway), a cultured milk similar to buttermilk or yogurt is often eaten with cereals. Whole-grain porridges with regular milk or butter are popular. A funny thing in the Scandinavian languages is that the word for breakfast in Swedish language/Norwegian language ("frukost" = early meal) means lunch in Danish. The Danish language word for breakfast is "morgenmad" (= morning meal).
In Russia, with the cold climate breakfasts tend to be substantial. Zavtrak may consist of hot oatmeal or kasha, eggs, cheese, cured meats or sausage, rye breads with butter (Butterbrods), and coffee or tea.
The typical German breakfast consists of bread rolls, butter, jam, ham, soft-boiled eggs and coffee. Cereals have become popular, and regional variation is significant — cheeses, cold cuts, meat spreads, yogurt, granola and fruit (fresh or stewed) may appear, as well as eggs cooked to order (usually at smaller hotels or bed-and-breakfasts). A second breakfast is traditional in parts of Germany, notably Bavaria (there also called Brotzeit, literally "bread time"). (see Bavarian Breakfast)
In Hungary people usually have a large breakfast. It consists of bread, bread rolls or crescent-shaped bread (kifli), toast, pastries with different fillings (sweet and salty as well), butter, jam or honey, eggs in different forms (fried eggs/scrambled eggs/omelette, etc), salami, cold cuts, cheeses, hot dogs with mustard, tea, coffee or milk. Fruit juice in the morning is not that usual, hot drinks are more common. Hungarians sometimes have rice pudding called (tejberizs) or cream of wheat (tejbegriz), usually eaten with cocoa powder or cinnamon sugar. "Lecsó" made from tomatoes and green pepper can sometimes be a breakfast meal as well, mainly in the summer.
The traditional Polish breakfast is a large spread with a variety of sides eaten with bread or toast. Sides include various cold cuts, meat spreads, the Polish sausage kielbasa, tomatoes, Swiss cheese, and sliced pickles. Twaróg, a Polish cheese, is the breakfast classic and comes in many forms. Twaróg can be eaten plain, with salt, sugar, or honey, or it can be mixed with or chives into a cream cheese-like spread. Eggs are served often as the main breakfast item, mostly soft-boiled or scrambled. For a quick winter breakfast, hot oatmeal, to which cocoa is sometimes added, is often served. Jam spreads are popular for a quick breakfast, including plum, raspberry, and black or red currant spreads. Breakfast drinks include coffee, milk (some areas may serve fresh milk from the cow), hot cocoa, or tea. Traditionally, the Poles avoid heavy-cooked foods for breakfast. For the most part, one will not see fried meats or potatoes in a classic Polish breakfast. Emphasis is placed on a large variety of foods to satisfy everyone at the breakfast table.
The traditional Romanian breakfast consists of bread, cold plates such as mortadella and cheese, feta cheese, cucumber, tomatoes and eggs prepared as omelette or sunny side up. Also, a cup or two of black coffee or black tea, are served for breakfast. In addition to these, natural juice or yoghurt are always taken in as an option.
Switzerland: Swiss breakfasts are often similar to those eaten in neighboring countries. A notable breakfast food of Swiss origin, now found throughout Europe, is muesli (Birchermüesli in Swiss German), introduced in 1900 by Maximilian Bircher-Benner for patients in his hospital.
In France a typical domestic breakfast will consist of cups of coffee, often café au lait, or hot chocolate, usually served in big bowls, accompanied by a glass of orange or grapefruit juice. The main food consists of sweet products such as tartines (slices of baguette or other breads spread with butter, jam or chocolate paste), sometimes dunked in the hot drink. Brioches and other pastries such as croissants, pains au chocolat and pains aux raisins are also traditional. Other products such as breakfast cereals, fruit compote, fromage blanc, and yogurt are becoming increasingly common as part of the meal. A typical French breakfast does not include any savory product.
Greece: Various kinds of pastry constitute the traditional Greek breakfast. Tyropita, spanakopita, and bougatsa (particularly in Northern Greece) are eaten, usually accompanied with Greek coffee. Simpler breakfasts include honey, marmalade or nutella cream (as well a Greek variation thereof, Merenda) spread over slices of bread. Children typically drink chocolate or plain milk.
Bulgaria, Serbia, Bosnia, Montenegro, Macedonia, parts of Croatia: Breakfast usually consists of various kinds of savory or sweet pastry, with cheese, meat or jam filling. The most typical breakfast consists of two slices of burek and a glass of yogurt. Breakfast also often consists of open sandwiches. The sandwich is buttered (with margarine), with toppings such as prosciutto and yellow cheese.
The traditional breakfast in Italy is simply Caffè e latte (hot coffee with milk) with bread or rolls, butter, and jam — known as prima colazione or just colazione. Fette biscottate (a cookie-like hard bread often eaten with Nutella) and biscotti (cookies) are commonly eaten. Children drink hot chocolate, plain milk, or hot milk with very little coffee. If breakfast is eaten in a bar (coffee shop), it is composed of cappuccino e brioche (frothed hot milk with coffee, and a pastry). It is very common for Italians to have a quick breakfast snack during the morning (typically a panino, or bread roll).
In Central Spain the traditional breakfast is chocolate con churros — hot chocolate with Spanish-style fritters, which are extruded sticks of doughnut-like dough with a star-shaped profile covered in sugar. The chocolate drink is made very thick and sweet. In Madrid, churros are somewhat smaller and shaped like a charity ribbon. This meal is normally served in cafeterias. In the South and West it is more common to have a cup of coffee (usually with milk) and a toast with a choice of olive oil and salt, tomato and olive oil, butter, jam, pâté, jamón serrano (cured ham), and other options like sobrasada (a raw cured spiced sausage that is easy to spread), and in Andalucia, pringá. Freshly squeezed orange juice is widely available in most places as an alternative for coffee. The breakfast is not often larger than these two items, because usually in late morning there is a break known as almuerzo when there is a snack. Sometimes, toast is replaced with galletas (a type of cookies made with flour, sugar, oil and vanilla flavour), magdalenas (a Spanish version of the French madeleine made with oil instead of butter) or buns.
A Portuguese pequeno-almoço comes in two varieties: one eaten running to work and another, more time-consuming one, more common on the weekends. When rushed in the morning, a cup of yogurt, milk, coffee or both and some bread with butter, cheese or jam suffices. Given the time, additions include orange juice, croissants, different kinds of pastry, and/or cereal.
Latin American breakfasts feature many items seen in North American and Continental European breakfasts in regional variations, according to their own culture.
In northern South America, maize-based breads, such as tortillas or arepas, may dominate or be augmented with wheat breads or pastries. Caffè, caffè e latte, chocolate, and tea are common beverages.
In Argentina and Uruguay, breakfast consists mainly of espresso coffee, café con leche, or yerba mate. There are also croissants, brioches, or facturas with dulce de leche, filled churros, French bread with jam and butter, grilled sandwiches of ham and cheese known as tostados, and sweet cookies or crackers.
Brazilians use the term "café-da-manhã" (morning coffee) or "desjejum" (des-, apart + jejum, fast, fasting) to refer to breakfast. Morning meals are different in the various regions of Brazil. Black coffee, cow milk, yogurt and white cheese are quite popular, and so are fruit juices (especially orange, guava, mango, cashew and passion fruit). The coffee or juice accompanies croissants, different kinds of pastry, French bread with jam or butter, grilled sandwiches of ham, cheese and tomatoes called misto-quente, slices of cake such as corn cake, orange cake and carrot cake. As for children, the most popular are sweet cookies or crackers with jam, toasts with fruit compote called tostadinha or torrada com geléia/compota accompanying chocolate milk or hot chocolate, as well as cornflakes with milk. "Sucrilhos" is the equivalent for the term "Frosties", a registered trademark that goes under many different names in different countries. In the Southern States, adults use to drink a steaming yerba mate infusion in a typical gourd, called chimarrão. The cold version is called tereré.
In Chile, breakfast is a light meal consisting of coffee or tea and 2 types of bread, called "Marraqueta" and "Hallulla" which are accompanied with jam, butter, cheese or jelly.
In Costa Rica breakfast is traditionally Gallo Pinto which is pinto beans and rice. A preferred alternative is to substitute black beans for the pinto beans. Some people may add "natilla" (sour cream), and a corn "tortilla". Black coffee or coffee with milk are the preferred beverages.
In Cuba breakfast has evolved since the Communist Revolution. Before the revolution, breakfast in urban areas consisted of café con leche (espresso coffee with scalded milk) that was sweetened and included a pinch of salt. Toasted buttered Cuban bread, cut into lengths, was dunked in the café con leche. In rural Cuba, farmers ate roasted pork, beans and white rice, café con leche and cuajada, a type of cottage cheese sweetened with caramel. Since the revolution, due to irregular availability, breakfasts consist of sopa de chicharo (salted green pea soup), coffee when available, and perhaps saltine crackers. Meats are rarely if ever consumed in Cuban urban areas.[verification needed]
In Colombia there are various breakfast staples. In the Cundinamarca region people eat changua: a milk, scallion, and cheese soup. In the Tolima region, a tamal tolimense is eaten in the company of hot chocolate and arepas. Tamales tolimenses are made with rice, dry legumes, beef, chicken and pork, egg, potato, and seasonings, covered with a maize dough, cooked while wrapped in a banana leaf.
In Ecuador breakfast depends on the region it is served. Along the Pacific Coast (Litoral) breakfast mainly consists of strong black coffee brewed in a special little aluminium pot (café de olla), fried plantain and white hard cheese made locally. It can include also an omelette and fresh fruit juices. In the highlands (Sierra) breakfast may include some black coffee or herbal teas (infusiones) with some fresh bread rolls, scramble eggs and even a kind of corn called mote.
In Dominican Republic the main dish for breakfast is called mangu (mashing boiled plantains). It is prepared with ground plantain mixed with butter and is usually eaten with salami, fried cheese, eggs (fried eggs or scrambled eggs). This dish is usually accompanied by cafe con leche, hot chocolate, or juice. Another main breakfast dish is the sandwich, prepared with cheese, ham, salami, or scrambled eggs. This is often accompanied with coffee, hot chocolate or juice. To make this particular sandwich the Dominican people use a bread called pan de agua (water bread—a simple bread made with water, flour, yeast, and salt). Other kinds of bread are also used to make this simple meal.
In the past, when Mexico's population was predominantly rural and agricultural, breakfast tradition included a light desayuno of hot beverages and breads at dawn and a heavier almuerzo mid-morning, with egg dishes such as huevos rancheros,chilaquiles, meats, beans, tortillas, pastries, and fruits. Commercial cereals are widely spread now, and consumed in the belief of nutrition factors, regarding of it being a product of marketing. Today, almuerzo generally means "lunch," and the Mexican breakfast may be the lighter or heavier version, depending on the person or occasion. Menudo, a tripe stew considered a folk remedy for a hangover, has become a breakfast dish as well as one eaten at other meals. As in other countries, breakfast in Mexico differs according to the region. In the north it is usual to eat "güin con huevo" (scrambled eggs with wieners) or "machaca con huevo" (scrambled eggs with beef jerky, in some places also called machacado), these with wheat tortillas. In the central and southern regions of the country corn tortillas are used. Most breakfast dishes in the state of Veracruz are called "Antojitos" (this word can be used for other meals, which consist of pastries made with corn flour) and are very fatty. The most common ones are "picadas" (or pellizcadas, a tortilla with a sauce, onion and fresh cheese topping) and "empanadas" (tortillas filled with an ingredient like cheese, chicken or huitlacoche).
Turkish breakfast consists of fresh white sourdough bread, white cheese (feta), yellow cheese (kaşar), fresh tomatoes, cucumbers, black and/or green olives, butter, honey, clotted water buffalo cream (kaymak) preserves, soujouk, salami, pastirma and a boiled egg — all accompanied by hot black tea in small tulip-shaped glasses. Breakfasts can be very elaborate for company or on weekends, and may include a variety of breads, pastries, and spreads, and several fresh fruits and vegetables in season, but the essential breakfast ingredients for almost every Turk on a daily basis are bread, cheese, olives, and tea.
In most Arab areas, the most popular breakfast by far is pita bread dipped in rich labneh, a type of yogurt, or in olive oil and za'atar (a common Middle-Eastern spice mix). Other popular breakfast foods in the Mashriq include boiled eggs, olives, cheese and fava beans.
In Iran, varieties of Iranian flatbreads (naan), Iranian feta cheese (panir-e irani) or Persian Feta, butter (kareh), a variety of traditional marmelades (morabba) or jams, honey (angebin or asal), Cream sar sheer and hot tea are essential breakfast foods. Other foods, such as heavy cream, walnuts, hard and soft boiled eggs, and omelettes are also popular for breakfast. Traditionally, a choice of butter and cheese, butter and marmalade, heavy cream and honey, butter and honey, or cheese and walnuts are rubbed on fresh bread and folded into bite-sized sandwiches and are to be consumed with hot tea. The tea is preferably sweetened with sugar. Another breakfast food, which is usually consumed between the hours of three to five in the morning, in winter, is called halim. Halim is a combination of wheat, cinnamon, butter and sugar cooked with either shredded turkey/chicken or shredded lamb in huge pots. It is served hot and cold, but preferably hot. On special occasions in winter months or in cooler regions of the country (served as lunch or breakfast), a lamb head stew kale pache is consumed, ordinarily on early hours of cold Friday mornings. In Lebanon, there are several types of breakfasts. Breakfasts include labneh, makoucheh, lahm bi ajin, and knefeh.
In Jordan the traditional breakfast is, pita bread dipped in rich labneh, a type of yogurt, or in olive oil and za'atar, also Hummus and Ful medames; variety of olives, cheeses, especially Goat Cheese, variety of vegetables; Falafel is also very common among breakfast items. Usually following breakfast you are served black tea, or Arabic coffee.
In Egypt the traditional breakfast is ful medames: slow cooked fava beans (sometimes with lentils) dressed in olive oil, lemon juice and garlic.
An Israeli breakfast typically consists of coffee, orange juice, fresh vegetables salad, goats/cows cream cheese, fresh bread or toast, olives, butter, fried eggs of your choice, and some small cookies or slices of cake. For an even fuller breakfast it might include hard-boiled eggs, cottage cheese, quark cheese, and Israeli salad. Another type of breakfast would be fried dough, malawach served with sweet fruits or something spicier. Hotels with continental breakfasts, in addition to the aforementioned items, will usually serve many different kinds of fish and yogurts, as well as an egg and spicy tomato dish known as shakshuka.
In Afghanistan a typical breakfast would be omelette, boiled eggs, cake or biscuits, butter toast, rice with kofta (meat) or sabzi (spinach, and for drinks they usually drink tea, khuemok chai (which has milk with black tea and flavour of rose).
Drinks: As the preceding regional descriptions show, beverage choices at breakfast are fairly uniform worldwide, comprising
- Fruit juices (orange juice is the most popular),
- Milk (hot, cold, possibly cultured), milk analogue or hot soya bean milk in Vietnam and China,
- Hot caffeinated and non-caffeinated beverages (tea, coffee, and chocolate). (Caffeine is a stimulant.)
Cultures around the world commonly shun or restrict alcoholic beverages at breakfast. (Alcohol is a depressant and a psychoactive drug, and so its effects might not be desired during working hours.) Notable exceptions would be the Mimosa cocktail: champagne and orange juice (known as buck's fizz in the UK); Bloody Mary cocktail: vodka and spiced tomato juice; and Liqueur coffee: a coffee brew with a 25ml shot of liqueur, which generally has a lower alcohol content than spirits (~15-30%). Still, a Mimosa is normally served at brunch, and rarely consumed before 10:00 in the morning at breakfast proper.
Some restaurants devote themselves to breakfast or have special breakfast menus. The field is dominated on one hand by greasy spoons, diners, cafés, cafeterias, and fast food places, and by hotels. However, some breakfast places resemble standard restaurants in procedure, selection, and price.
Breakfast is occasionally served as an entertainment meal.
The serving of a pancake breakfast is traditional on Pancake Day (Shrove Tuesday), and some celebrate a festive breakfast on Christmas morning.
During Ramadan, Muslims describe the meal after sunset that "breaks the fast" as Iftar.